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The repair of endogenously induced DNA damage is essential to maintain genomic integrity. It has been shown that XRCC1 and PARP1 are involved in the repair of base lesions and SSBs, although the exact mode of action has yet to be determined. Here we show that XRCC1 is involved in the repair of base lesions and SSBs independent of the cell cycle. However, the rate of repair of damage requiring XRCC1 does reflect the damage complexity. The repair of induced DNA damage occurs by PARP1-dependent and PARP1-independent sub-pathways of BER. It is suggested that the repair of SSBs and purine base damage is by a sub-pathway of BER that requires both XRCC1 and PARP1. Repair of pyrimidine base damage may require XRCC1 but does not require PARP1 activity. Therefore, although BER of simple lesions occurs rapidly, pathway choice and the involvement of PARP1 are highly dependent on the types of lesion induced.

Original publication




Journal article


Nucleic Acids Res

Publication Date





4028 - 4038


Animals, CHO Cells, Cricetinae, Cricetulus, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, DNA-Binding Proteins, Guanine, Lasers, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases, X-Rays, X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1