Intensity-modulated radiotherapy allows escalation of the radiation dose to the pelvic lymph nodes in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer: preliminary results of a phase I dose escalation study.
Guerrero Urbano T., Khoo V., Staffurth J., Norman A., Buffa F., Jackson A., Adams E., Hansen V., Clark C., Miles E., McNair H., Nutting C., Parker C., Eeles R., Huddart R., Horwich A., Dearnaley DP.
AIM: Pelvic irradiation in addition to prostate irradiation may improve outcome in locally advanced prostate cancer, but is associated with dose-limiting bowel toxicity. We report the preliminary results of a dose escalation study using intensity-modulated radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had high-risk (T3, Gleason > or =8 or prostate-specific antigen > or =20 ng/ml) or lymph node-positive disease. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was inverse planned giving 70 Gy/35 fractions to the prostate and 50 Gy/55 Gy/60 Gy in sequential cohorts to the pelvis with a 5 Gy boost to positive lymph nodes. Acute and late toxicity were recorded with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and Late Effects Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management LENT-SOM scales. Neoadjuvant androgen suppression was given for 3 years. This report concerns the 50 and 55 Gy cohorts. RESULTS: Seventy-nine men were recruited (25 to 50 Gy/54 to 55 Gy) with a median follow-up of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the total bowel volume outlined (median 450 cm(3)). Acute RTOG (> or =2) bowel toxicity was 40 and 50% for the 50 and 55 Gy groups and 38 and 51% for bowel volume <450 cm(3) and > or =450 cm(3), respectively, suggesting both volume and dose relationships for acute effects. Late RTOG diarrhoea > or =grade 2 was only seen with bowel volume > or =450 cm(3), but no dose effect was apparent (12%/50 Gy and 10%/55 Gy). LENT-SOM bowel > or =grade 2 toxicity occurred in 22%/50 Gy and 15%/55 Gy. Only one patient had grade 3 toxicity. A dose volume histogram analysis showed increased late RTOG diarrhoea > or =grade 2 with larger bowel volume irradiated, significant for BV40 >124 cm(3) (P=0.04), BV45 >71 cm(3) (P=0.03) and BV60 >2 cm(3) (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Acute and late bowel toxicity was acceptably low using a pelvic dose of up to 55 Gy over 7 weeks. Both relate to total pelvic bowel volume and dose volume constraints have been defined.