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Using mass spectrometric analysis insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS-4) has been identified as a novel adenovirus 5 early region 1A (Ad5E1A)-binding protein. IRS-4 interacts with both the transcriptional activation domain (conserved region 3) and the N-terminal region of Ad5E1A13S. Prolonged expression of Ad5E1A13S is required for the observed dramatic increase in the levels of IRS-4 mRNA and protein in Ad5E1-transformed human cell lines. Once expressed, as well as binding to E1A and the insulin receptor, IRS-4 remains tyrosine phosphorylated and constitutively associates with the regulatory p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3 kinase, resulting in the phosphorylation of Akt (causing activation) and GSK-3beta (causing inhibition). Reducing IRS-4 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in established Ad5E1A-expressing cell lines decreases the activation of Akt and cellular proliferation. During Ad5 infection, IRS-4 is not expressed. However, Ad5E1A associates with IRS-1, increasing Akt and GSK-3beta phosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 itself. We conclude that the association and altered regulation of IRS proteins by Ad5E1A contribute to the adenovirus-transformed phenotype and modulates viral infection in an Akt-dependent manner.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





686 - 697


Adenoviridae, Adenovirus E1A Proteins, Animals, Cell Transformation, Viral, Cells, Cultured, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, HCT116 Cells, HT29 Cells, HeLa Cells, Humans, Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins, Oncogene Protein v-akt, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Protein Binding, Rats, Signal Transduction