Expression of several cytokines in prostate cancer: Correlation with clinical variables of patients. Relationship with biochemical progression of the malignance.
Torrealba N., Rodríguez-Berriguete G., Fraile B., Olmedilla G., Martínez-Onsurbe P., Guil-Cid M., Paniagua R., Royuela M.
BACKGROUND: This work is focused on finding new markers that complement or diagnoses currently used towards improving knowledge histological and statistical aspects that allow us to predict the local stage carcinomas and to identify and understand all the factors related to the progression of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostates were obtained from: normal prostates from 20 men, diagnosis of BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) from 35 men and prostate cancer from 86 men. We studied the behavior of cytokines that have been implicated in inflammatory processes: TNF-alfa, IL-6, IL-1, EGF and TGF-B. Expression of these cytokines and its receptors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Spearman's test, Kaplan-Meier curves, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Spearman's analysis showed that there was at least one correlation between TGFB-B, IL-6, gp-130, IL-1B, IL-1R, IL-1RII and clinic pathological feature (preoperative serum PSA, clinical t stage, pathological t stage, positive surgical margins, biochemical progression, survival). Immunostaining score was correlated with some of the clinicopathological feature. In Cox multivariate analysis between the prognostic variables (pathological T stage, Gleason score and lymph node) and immunohistochemical parameters (TGF-B, IL-1a, intensity TGFBRI and intensity TGFBRII) only the expression of IL-1a was retained as independent predictors of biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for prostatic expression of TGF-B, IL-1a, TGFBRI and TGFBRII as prognostic markers for prostate cancer. The rational combination of novel agents directed toward the inactivation of TGF-B, IL-1a, TGFBRI and TGFBRII could disrupt complementary tumor cell proliferation pathways.