Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

C-1311 is a small molecule, which has shown promise in a number of pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the biological response to C-1311 exposure is complicated and has been reported to involve a number of cell fates. Here, we investigated the molecular signaling which determines the response to C-1311 in both cancer and non-cancer cell lines. For the first time we demonstrate that the tumor suppressor, p53 plays a key role in cell fate determination after C-1311 treatment. In the presence of wild-type p53, cells exposed to C-1311 entered senescence. In contrast, cells lines without functional p53 underwent mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis. C-1311 also induced autophagy in a non-p53-dependent manner. Cells in hypoxic conditions also responded to C-1311 in a p53-dependent manner, suggesting that our observations are physiologically relevant. Most importantly, we show that C-1311 can be effectively combined with radiation to improve the radiosensitivity of a panel of cancer cell lines. Together, our data suggest that C-1311 warrants further clinical testing in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





31187 - 31198


C-1311/Symadex, apoptosis, p53, radiation, senescence, Aminoacridines, Antineoplastic Agents, Apoptosis, Cell Cycle, Cell Line, Tumor, Cellular Senescence, Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation, Gene Knockout Techniques, Humans, Mitosis, Radiation Tolerance, Radiation-Sensitizing Agents, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53