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The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





425 - 532


Angiogenesis, Aortic ring, Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), Corneal angiogenesis, Endothelial cell migration, Hindlimb ischemia, Intussusceptive angiogenesis, Microfluidic, Myocardial angiogenesis, Plug assay, Proliferation, Recombinant proteins, Retinal vasculature, Tip cells, Vascular network, Vessel co-option, Zebrafish