SJG-136 (NSC 694501), a novel rationally designed DNA minor groove interstrand cross-linking agent with potent and broad spectrum antitumor activity: part 1: cellular pharmacology, in vitro and initial in vivo antitumor activity.
Hartley JA., Spanswick VJ., Brooks N., Clingen PH., McHugh PJ., Hochhauser D., Pedley RB., Kelland LR., Alley MC., Schultz R., Hollingshead MG., Schweikart KM., Tomaszewski JE., Sausville EA., Gregson SJ., Howard PW., Thurston DE.
SJG-136 (NSC 694501) is a rationally designed pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer that binds in the minor groove of DNA. It spans 6 bp with a preference for binding to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences. The agent has potent activity in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) anticancer drug screen with 50% net growth inhibition conferred by 0.14 to 320 nmol/L (7.4 nmol/L mean). Sensitive cell lines exhibit total growth inhibition and 50% lethality after treatment with as little as 0.83 and 7.1 nmol/L SJG-136, respectively. COMPARE and molecular target analysis of SJG-136 data versus that of >60,000 compounds tested in the NCI 60 cell line screen shows that, although the agent has similarity to other DNA binding agents, the pattern of activity for SJG-136 does not fit within the clusters of any known agents, suggesting that SJG-136 possesses a distinct mechanism of action. Testing in the NCI standard hollow fiber assay produced prominent growth inhibition in 20 of 24 i.p. and 7 of 24 s.c. test combinations with 5 of 12 cell lines exhibiting cell kill. In addition, SJG-136 produced antitumor activity in mice bearing CH1 and CH1cisR xenografts, a cisplatin-resistant human ovarian tumor model, and also in mice bearing LS174T xenografts, a human colon tumor model. SJG-136 produces DNA interstrand cross-links between two N-2 guanine positions on opposite strands and separated by 2 bp. In human tumor cell lines, the cross-links form rapidly and persist compared with those produced by conventional cross-linking agents such as nitrogen mustards. In mice bearing the LS174T human colon xenograft, DNA interstrand cross-links can be detected in tumor cells using a modification of the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay after administration of a therapeutic dose. Cross-links in the tumor increase with dose and are clearly detectable at 1 hour after i.v. administration. The level of cross-linking persists over a 24-hour period in this tumor in contrast to cross-links produced by conventional cross-linking agents observed over the same time period.