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The nature and extent of negative and multiple HLA antigen disease associations are investigated theoretically under two models. The first model assumes that an HLA antigen is involved directly in predisposing individuals to disease. The second model assumes that the association of a particular HLA antigen(s) with a disease is the result of linkage disequilibrium between the allele determining the antigen and alleles at a nearby locus which confers susceptibility to disease. We determined whether observed decreases in antigen frequencies among a patient group are simply the inevitable result of the fact that if one or more alleles at a locus is increased in frequency, then others must be decreased. Under the antigen predisposing model exact predictions concerning allele and antigen class frequencies at the predisposing locus, and the non-predisposing loci, are given. The predictions are examined using HLA-DR data for multiple sclerosis.


Journal article


Tissue Antigens

Publication Date





293 - 306


Alleles, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Gene Frequency, Genes, Dominant, Genes, Recessive, Genetic Linkage, HLA Antigens, HLA-DR Antigens, Histocompatibility Antigens Class II, Humans, Models, Genetic