Anti-tumour activity of a first-in-class agent NUC-1031 in patients with advanced cancer: results of a phase I study.
Blagden SP., Rizzuto I., Suppiah P., O'Shea D., Patel M., Spiers L., Sukumaran A., Bharwani N., Rockall A., Gabra H., El-Bahrawy M., Wasan H., Leonard R., Habib N., Ghazaly E.
BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine is used to treat a wide range of tumours, but its efficacy is limited by cancer cell resistance mechanisms. NUC-1031, a phosphoramidate modification of gemcitabine, is the first anti-cancer ProTide to enter the clinic and is designed to overcome these key resistance mechanisms. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with advanced solid tumours who had relapsed after treatment with standard therapy were recruited to a dose escalation study to determine the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) and assess the safety of NUC-1031. Pharmacokinetics and anti-tumour activity was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients received treatment, 50% of whom had prior exposure to gemcitabine. NUC-1031 was well tolerated with the most common Grade 3/4 adverse events of neutropaenia, lymphopaenia and fatigue occurring in 13 patients each (19%). In 49 response-evaluable patients, 5 (10%) achieved a partial response and 33 (67%) had stable disease, resulting in a 78% disease control rate. Cmax levels of the active intracellular metabolite, dFdCTP, were 217-times greater than those reported for equimolar doses of gemcitabine, with minimal toxic metabolite accumulation. The RP2D was determined as 825 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. CONCLUSIONS: NUC-1031 was well tolerated and demonstrated clinically significant anti-tumour activity, even in patients with prior gemcitabine exposure and in cancers not traditionally perceived as gemcitabine-responsive.