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Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is a hallmark of cancer that influences cancer cell function, but is also an important component of the tumour microenvironment as it alters the extracellular matrix, modulates the tumour immune response and increases angiogenesis. Here we discuss the regulation and role of hypoxia and its key transcriptional mediators, the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors, in the tumour microenvironment and stromal compartments.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Cell Biol

Publication Date





356 - 365


Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors, Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic, Humans, Hypoxia, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, Models, Biological, Neoplasms, Neovascularization, Pathologic, Signal Transduction, Tumor Microenvironment