MiR-210--micromanager of the hypoxia pathway.
Huang X., Le Q-T., Giaccia AJ.
Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) regulate a variety of genes to prepare cells to adapt and survive under a hypoxic environment. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a new class of genes regulated by HIFs in response to hypoxia, of which miR-210 is the most consistently and predominantly upregulated miRNA. Functional studies have demonstrated that miR-210 is a versatile gene that regulates many aspects of hypoxia pathways, both in physiological and malignant conditions. Here, we summarize recent findings on the mechanism of hypoxia regulation of miR-210 expression and its multifaceted biological functions in normal physiological and malignant conditions, and discuss the challenges we face in elucidating the biological functions of miR-210 and exploring its potential use for therapeutics.