Development and validation of clinical prediction models to risk stratify patients presenting with small pulmonary nodules: a research protocol.
Oke JL., Pickup LC., Declerck J., Callister ME., Baldwin D., Gustafson J., Peschl H., Ather S., Tsakok M., Exell A., Gleeson F.
Introduction: Lung cancer is a common cancer, with over 1.3 million cases worldwide each year. Early diagnosis using computed tomography (CT) screening has been shown to reduce mortality but also detect non-malignant nodules that require follow-up scanning or alternative methods of investigation. Practical and accurate tools that can predict the probability that a lung nodule is benign or malignant will help reduce costs and the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with lung cancer. Methods: Retrospectively collected data from 1500 patients with pulmonary nodule(s) of up to 15 mm detected on routinely performed CT chest scans aged 18 years old or older from three academic centres in the UK will be used to to develop risk stratification models. Radiological, clinical and patient characteristics will be combined in multivariable logistic regression models to predict nodule malignancy. Data from over 1000 participants recruited in a prospective phase of the study will be used to evaluate model performance. Discrimination, calibration and clinical utility measures will be presented.