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Oxygen homeostasis and protection from episodes of low oxygen tension in human tissues is important for cell survival. There are a number of physiological and pathological scenarios that place the cell in hypoxic conditions warranting adaptation to the stressful environment. In hypoxia, oxidative phosphorylation is deceased with subsequent reduction of ATP production. A responsive increase in glycolysis compensates for this ATP reduction to some degree, but many ATP-dependent processes such as protein translation are decreased in hypoxic cells. Despite this, the cell must adapt to the hypoxic environment via increased oxygen delivery systemically and locally, as well as protect itself from secondary effects of hypoxia, such as decreased pH. Therefore, in a background of decreased total protein translation, specific upregulation of protective mechanisms safeguard the cell from hypoxic stress. This process is primarily regulated by a transcription factor known as Hypoxia Inducible Factor, HIF. © 2008 Springer US.

Original publication





Book title

Angiogenesis: An Integrative Approach From Science to Medicine

Publication Date



169 - 179