Cytokine networks in solid human tumors: regulation of angiogenesis.
Leek RD., Harris AL., Lewis CE.
The isolation, purification, and molecular cloning of an increasing number of cytokines and their receptors have allowed major advances in our understanding of the relevance of these proteins to the pathobiology and treatment of such human diseases as neoplasia. Cytokines produced by the multiple cell types present within the microenvironment of solid tumors from a complex, dynamic network, in which they have overlapping properties, induce other cytokines and alter the expression of soluble and cell surface-bound cytokine receptors. A broad number of such intratumoral cytokines have multiple effects on tumor progression. These include direct and indirect effects both on tumor cell growth and metastatic behaviors and on such cells in the stromal compartment as fibroblasts, infiltrating immune cells, and endothelial cells in the microvasculature. Here, we review the sites of production and multifaceted role of several key cytokines in the stimulation of a new blood supply within growing neoplasms. The clinical implications and new therapeutic targets suggested by this rapidly emerging picture of the cellular and molecular mechanisms subserving tumor angiogenesis are also discussed.