Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the human topoisomerase II alpha gene.
Hochhauser D., Stanway CA., Harris AL., Hickson ID.
Topoisomerases are essential enzymes for DNA metabolism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In human cells, DNA topoisomerase II enzyme activity can be modulated by both viral transformation and changes in proliferation status. To identify elements important for regulation of topoisomerase II alpha gene expression, genomic DNA clones covering the 5'-end of the gene were isolated. The intron/exon structure of a 2.5-kilobase region encompassing the translation start site was determined. Transcription was found to initiate at multiple sites clustered around 90 base pairs 5' to the ATG initiation codon. Transient expression of chimeric topoisomerase II-reporter gene constructs in HeLa cells revealed that the 5'-flanking region exhibited promoter activity. The region -90 to -1 upstream of the major transcription start site was shown by deletion analysis to include a promoter. This minimal promoter lacks a TATA box, is moderately GC-rich, and contains a high frequency of CpG dinucleotides; characteristic of a "housekeeping" gene promoter. Maximal promoter activity was observed using a fragment extending to position -562. Putative regulatory elements are contained within and immediately upstream of the minimal promoter region. The regulatory region of the topoisomerase II alpha gene identified here is similar in basic structure to those of the human thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase alpha genes, which are also controlled by proliferation-specific factors.