Preclinical, phase I and pharmacokinetic studies with the dimethyl phenyltriazene CB10-277.
Foster BJ., Newell DR., Carmichael J., Harris AL., Gumbrell LA., Jones M., Goodard PM., Calvert AH.
Decarbazine is an imidazole dimethyltriazene with reproducible activity in patients with metastatic melanoma. CB10-277 is a phenyl dimethyltriazene which, like dacarbazine, requires metabolic activation to its corresponding monomethyl species for antitumour activity. In preclinical models (human melanoma xenografts and transplantable rodent tumours) CB10-277 showed a similar spectrum and level of activity when compared to dacarbazine. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed with CB10-277 in mice treated i.v. at the LD10 (750 mg m-2) and plasma analysed by HPLC. The parent drug area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) was 142 mM x minutes. Drug metabolism occurred as evidenced by the HPLC identification of the monomethyl species (AUC = 8 mM x minutes) as well as other metabolites. A Phase I trial using a short infusion with doses repeated every 21 days has been performed. Thirty-six patients received 80 courses over a dose range of 80-6,000 mg m-2. The dose limiting toxicity was nausea and vomiting which occurred in 80% of the evaluable courses > or = 900 mg m-2. The only other common side effect was a flushing or warm sensation, which occurred in over 75% of courses at > or = 1,350 mg m-2. There were no hemodynamic consequences. Responses occurred in patients with melanoma (one complete, two partial, one mixed/11), sarcoma (one mixed/6) and carcinoid (one partial/l). Pharmacokinetics were performed in 46 courses. The CB10-277 AUC increased linearly with dose (r = 0.9203, P < 0.001) up to 700 mM x minutes at 6,000 mg m-2). Evidence of CB10-277 metabolism was observed, as in mice, by detection of the monomethyl species and other metabolites. However, the plasma levels of the monomethyl species in patients (1.8 and 3.7 mM x minutes at 6,000 mg m-2) were less than those predicted from studies in mice. Despite this, antitumour activity in dacarbazine sensitive histologies was observed and additional studies with CB10-277 are recommended.